Om de oorsprong van de indian dog goed te begrijpen is het verdiepen in de Native American Geschiedenis noodzakelijk.
Niemand weet waar de indianen vandaan kwamen die zich over het noordelijke deel van Amerika vestigden. Over waar hun honden vandaan kwamen bestaan echter 2 theorien. De ene zegt dat ze met de mensen uit Azie mee kwamen, en de ander gaat er vanuit dat de indianen de noordamerikaanse wolf temden.
De Geschiedenis van de American Indian Dog is een studie van legendes en historie van de Amerikanen, een reis terug in de tijd voordat ‘de nieuwe wereld’ ontdekt werd, lang voordat de Indianen, paarden hadden waren de Song Dogs al aanwezig. Ze werden gebruikt voor de jacht, als herder-, trek- of pakdier, waakhond en babysitter. Deze honden waren onmisbaar in het leven van de Native American, het coyoteachtige uiterlijk is geen toeval. De native American geloven dat de coyote oftewel ‘Gods Dog’ de eerste levende wezens op aarde waren en ook de laatste zullen zijn! De indian dogs maken deel uit van de balans in de natuur, zij zijn er om van te leren en helpen de mens te overleven. De Indian Dog werd soms gekruist met de coyote en wolf voor het instinct, roedelgedrag en hoge intelligentie.
De zoölogen en archeologen hebben bewijzen gevonden dat de Indian Dog 30.000 jaar geleden al bij de Indianen leefden. De American Indian Dogs werden ook beschreven door de eerste Spanjaarden, de Lewis en Clark expeditie de eerste settlers en in de verhalen en legendes van de Indianen zelf.
Speculaties, gebaseerd op vondsten in grotten, noemen zelfs een periode van 300.000 jaar terug dat het partnerschap tussen mens en hond begon. Onze relatie met honden is waardevol gebleken voor beide soorten op verschillende vlakken, inclusief het emotionele vlak. Dit demonstreert dat onze afhankelijkheid van elkaar verder gaat dan alleen onze lichamelijke behoeften.
Zoals iedereen weet waren er veel indianen stammen , bijna iedere stam had zijn eigen honden. Deze indian dogs werden destijds song dogs genoemd ivm hun hoge stemmen met communiceren. Als ze op de buffalos jaagden leek het alsof ze zongen.
De stammen onderling ruilden regelmatig honden om op een goede manier te blijven fokken. Ook kruisten ze met coyotes of wolven. Dit laatste werd echter sporadisch gedaan en niet in alle lijnen daarom valt de indian dog ook niet onder de “wolfhonden”
De indian dogs die bij deze stammen leefden waren weer onder de verdelen in
Village indian dogs
Tahl Tan en pueblo
Die later weer zijn onderverdeeld in verschillende types als noordelijk (ook wel wolftype genoemd) Zuidelijk ( ook wel coyote type genoemd) en plain type (eigenschappen van de beide samen) We gebruiken ook wel eens de benaming werktype of oud type en daarmee bedoelen we een pure indian dog lijn (zonder of met weinig coyote of wolf %)
De village en common indian dogs;
leken heel veel op elkaar alleen hadden de noordelijke common types een wat dikkere ondervacht
De common indian dogs zijn vergelijkbaar met de plain indians omdat de common indian dogs ook veel ingezet werden bij de fok van de plain indian dogs. Van de village indian dogs en Inuit dogs in het noorden, canada en alaska met de dikkere vacht en de sioux en wat zuidelijkere stammen met de wat dunnere vacht met dezelfde taken als de plain indian dogs maar nog meer voor het trekken van de sleedes door de noordelijke sneeuw
Onder de noordelijke indian dogs en village dogs vielen ook de husky en malamute en eskimos types, waarvan de noordelijke husky achtigen meer op een collie leken en niet echt te vergelijken is met de moderne husky rassen maar nog wel close verwant met de oudere husky rassen als de Alaskan Husky. Terugkomend op de vraag is de indian dog een husky; De husky is oorspronkelijk een indian dog ! en de alaskan husky is dus wel Een type indian dog die in de oude lijnen nog steeds bestaat (werk type/ village type) en zeer geliefd is onder de sledehonden mushers. De indian dog heeft verschillende types (waar we in volgende hoofdstukken verder op in zullen gaan) dus om de indian dog te beschrijven als husky zou te kort door de bocht zijn en zou betekenen dat we de andere types zouden negeren.
Wil dit zeggen dat alle alaskan Huskys indian dogs zijn; nee , verschillende moderne lijnen zijn in verre nog verwant aan de oude indian dog lijnen maar door meerder deel aan outcross is deze verwantschap te ver om deze dan nog indian dog te kunnen noemen.
De bijhorende kaart is gebaseerd op gevonden botten van de oude indian dogs waarvan de village en common indian dogs zijn gevonden in ohio, maine, california (kust gebied) en santa barbara eiland, de verhalen en tekeningen uit het verleden bevestigen een groot gebied waarvan dit tot 12000 jaar geleden bevestigd is.
De kenmerken van de common en village indian dogs zie je veel terug in onze hedendaagse indians. De andere type indian dogs worden in de volgende hoofdstukken verder toegelicht. In het info boek worden ook foto’s en oude paintings vergeleken met de hedendaagse fotos. Dit is heel mooi en interessant om te zien.
Wat extra info over de
De herkomst van de Alaska husky: (geciteerd uit de sled dog weblog) Het verschil tussen de oude en moderne lijnen staan hier goed uitgelegt en de verwantschap met andere rassen en de theorie daarachter;
Alaskan Sled dogs cluster with the “Ancient Asian Group” which is the group closest to wolves and believed to have branched off from wolves the earliest.
So to me that intuitively makes sense. That shows the genetic relationship between alaskan sled dogs and Asian pariah dogs believed to have crossed the Bering land bridge with the First Americans, the ancestors of the native people.
So Alaskan sled dogs have this unique genetic signature, but its related to Asian pariah dogs, which basically resemble dingos. That’s basically what a primitive dog is, a dingo basically. You see these dogs throughout Asia, New Guniea, the Sinai Peninsula(Canaan dogs), and even in North America(Carolina dogs) and Korea (Jindo).
So these pariah dogs are around. They aren’t really valued, where they still occur, but rather tolerated, but some modern breeds have been created from them, such as Japanese Breeds such as the Shiba Inu and the Akita, the Canaan dog of Israel, and the Basenji of Africa.
Basenjis and Shiba Inu’s are closely related, which may seem strange given the geographic distance, but not so strange when you consider the basic phenotype of the two dogs. Basically they are identical with the exception of the coat length. The Basenji has a short coat in keeping with the hot climate its found in and the Shiba has a warm coat. Both are cat like, primitive behaving dogs, with a tightly curled tail. Both are predatory and territorial and would probably be too much to handle for most pet owners in a larger size. Of, course, a larger version of the Shiba, is the Akita Inu, which actually is too much to handle for most pet owners, the same with the Chow. These are primitive dogs.
The dogs of Jindo island in korea are intermediate in size between a Shiba inu and Akita and these dogs have their wild hunting instincts completely intact and can and do take down deer and eat them just like a wolf.
These primitive dogs, represent the first domestication event of primitive dogs. Its belived these first dogs were descended from wolves that began to hang around human camps and formed a symbiotic relationship with humans. It wasn’t really a master slave relationship, which is what the relationship of modern breeds and human’s resembles. It was more of a partnership.
That is why these pariah dogs are less domesticated. Its because they are less dependant. They are semi feral. They breed on their own, raise pups on their own and hunt and scavaenge for their own food. The modern breeds are totally dependant upon humans and are the result of planned breedings and strict artifical selection and genetic isolation.
Modern sled dogs, however, are not pariah dogs. They aren’t free ranging, the breedings are carefully planned, they are well fed (and thus don’t hunt and forage for their food) and they are bred to a standard, which is a performance standard.
The diffeence between them and modern AKC style breeds, is that the standard is a performance standard and that the “breed book” is open and not closed, so there is much more heterogeneity in the gene pool.
But I think going back in time, the ancestors of the Alaskan sled dog, would more closely resemble pariah dogs found else where in the world in its way of life. This way of life is still seen in the Arctic, or was seen in recent memory, where eskimo dogs were relegated to islands in the summer and left to fend and scavange for themselves and breeding was more or less random.
But modern racing dogs aren’t Greenland dogs and they aren’t pariah dogs and they are bred to a strict standard a standard that didn’t really exist before the advent of modern sled dog racing.
With racing sled dogs, Some human athletic analogies break down. For example iditarod dogs are compared to marathon runners and sprint racing dogs are compared to sprinters, but really the highest level of sprint racing resembles a human marathon, beyond the capacity of human endurance. Its basically like running three marathons consecutively over the course of three days at a spped of over 20 mph. Its a feet that no human being can perform. Its a feat of extreme endurance.
Pariah dogs aren’t subject to such extreme selection pressure. Many, were and still are used as primitive hunting dogs, so this is reflected in a certian level of athletic ability that is superior to most modern breeds. In Russian Laikas this ability have been developed further. Historically Alaskan Native dogs were used for hunting also.
So among this pool of primitive dogs, the Alaskan sled dog was created. There was a lot of culling for racing. So this changed the gene pool. traits associated with extreme athleticism were chosen and traits associated with primitive behaviors like aggression were weeded out. This has been going on for nearly a hundred years, at least 60 years for really serious racing. Dogs used for general transportation have more or less died out.
But with specialization, there have been some trade offs. One of the trade offs has been breeding for short coats. The short coats prevent over heating, in events such as open class sprint racing. Open class sprint racing is more demanding than other types of events with a slower tempo, such as mid distance racing, so winning animals from open class events have been more in demand for breeding.
Open Class sprint dogs are the most gifted athlitically, dogs going back to these lines are the most successful in distance events. So the upshot is that Alaskan husky sled dogs of today are more athletically gifted than their more primitive ancestors. The downside is that most of the really athletically gifted dogs are too short coated to perform their original jobs of providing winter transportation and running traplines. But still, the genetic link to the past is still strong. Genetically, open class dogs are not mostly hound dog. Pure hounds can’t do what they do.
I have seen throwbacks to a more traditional husky phenotype, among sprint racing dogs and there are also a few of the husky phenotype competing at the highest level.
The best distance dogs go back to older less houndy sprint lines.
So based on this gentic evidence I would the best sled dogs, for winter transportation would be dogs from long distance racing kennels, possibly outcrossed with more old fashioned expedition type dogs.
A dog with a background like that would probably be superior than the sled dogs of yesturday, running traplines in the Bush, becauase these dogs would have 60 years of performance breeding behind them.
Waarom heeft het wolftype van de indian dog een laag percentage wolf in de bloedlijnen? –> omdat ze zo door de indianen gefokt werden… Onze hedendaagse indians lijken nog op de indian dogs van vroeger !!!!!
” These dogs are of the large sort, with bodies of a wolf and heads and ears of those of a fox ”
‘ Deze grote honden met het lichaam van een wolf en het hoofd en oren zoals die van een vos ”
NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION
The spirits who lived at the bottom of the Great Lakes required sacrifices of certain colored dogs bound with legs and muzzles tied and thrown into the water so the angry gods would be appeased and fishing and traveling on the waters would be good and safe for the peoples. In 1709 it was observed that the tribes of the Great Lakes region would leave their villages nestled along the banks of rivers and lakes to go far inland to winter with their numerous dogs. These dogs are of the large sort, with bodies of a wolf and heads and ears of those of a fox.The Ojibwa Indians of the Great Lakes region harvested maple sap in the spring before heading back to their summer villages along the banks of rivers and lakes. Maple sugar and candy was used as a preservative in their dried foods and mixed with leeks (wild onions) as a cough medicine and remedy for other ailments. No one is really sure just how long people have been practicing the art and science of making this wonderful product from the sap of a tree. We do know that Native Americans were already using maple sap to flavor their food long before European settlers discovered its sweetness. Indian Legend and Lore Native Americans have many wonderful stories about how they began making maple syrup. The first is the legend of Glooskap. Many, many, many years ago the Creator had made life much easier for man. In fact, in those days the maple tree was filed with syrup and all man had to do was cut a hole in the maple tree and the syrup dripped out. One day the young prince Glooskap (known by other names in other tribes) came upon a village of his people that was strangely silent. There were no dogs barking, no children playing, no women minding the cook fires, and no men getting ready to go hunting! Glooskap looked and looked and finally found everyone in the nearby maple grove . They were all lying at the bases of the trees and letting the sweet syrup drip into their mouths. Even the dogs were enjoying the syrup. “Get up, you people,” Glooskap called. “There is work to be done!” But no-one moved. Now Glooskap had special powers, and he used these powers to make a large bark container. He flew to the lake, filled the container with water and flew back to the maple grove . When he poured the water over the trees it diluted the syrup so it was no longer sweet. ”Now, get up you people! Because you have been so lazy the trees no longer hold syrup, but only sap. Now you will have to work for your syrup by boiling the sap. What’s more, the sap will soon run dry. You will only be able to make syrup in the early spring of the year!” Another legend relates to the Earth Mother, Kokomis, who made the first maple syrup. Now Kokomis made a hole in a tree, and maple syrup poured out. However, her grandson, Manabush, was worried that if the sweet gift of the maple tree was so easily obtained, the Indians might become shiftless and lazy. So he showered the top of the sugar maple with water, thus diluting the maple syrup into sap. The Chippewas and Ottawas of Michigan tell a similar story of the god NenawBozhoo, who cast a spell on the sugar maple tree many moons ago, turning the near pure syrup into what is now called sap. He did this because he loved his people and feared they would become indolent and destroy themselves if nature’s gifts were given too freely. This legend is unique in that, in various forms, it can be found almost universally throughout the Eastern Woodland Indian tribes. This is unusual for cultures that did not have a written history. Perhaps a more believable story is that of the Indian woman named Moqua. The story was recounted in the April 1896 issue of The Atlantic Monthly by Vermonter Rowland E. Robinson. The story goes that Moqua was cooking a prime cut of moose for her husband, the hunter Woksis. However, Moqua became preoccupied with her quill-work and let the pot boil dry. Realizing she did not have time to melt some snow she used some maple sap she had been saving for a beverage. Woksis was so impressed with the meal he broke the pot so he could lick the last of the “goo” from the pot shards. Yet another legend states that a chief removed his tomahawk from the trunk of a sugar maple tree, where he had thrown it the night before. As the sun got higher, the sap began to drip from the gash in the tree. The Chief’s wife tasted it and discovered that it didn’t taste bad, so she used it to cook the meat (though another version says that the pot was left under a broken sugar maple branch and the sap dripped into it). Later when the meat was cooked, the sap boiled down to a syrup. The irresistibly sweet scent and taste of the maple meat so delighted the Chief that he named it Sinzibuckwud—a word meaning “drawn from trees.” This became the word used most often by Native Americans when referring to maple syrup. Early Indian Methods Native Americans gradually reduced the sap to syrup by repeatedly freezing it, discarding the ice, and starting again. Some made birch bark containers that held about 20 to 30 pounds of maple sugar for storage. The Ojibways of the Great Lakes , the Wyandots of the Detroit River , and the Indians at Pidgeon Lake , were similar in how they processed the maple sap. As soon as the sap began to rise, the women and their families migrated in family groups to the maple groves, or “sugar bushes,” where they erected a camp and lived in wigwams made of bark. They prepared troughs, collected the sap, and brought it to the fire, while the most experienced women regulated the heat. Sometimes the sap was made to boil by placing hot stones in the mixture. Freshly heated stones were constantly added, while the cooler ones were fished out and reheated. Usually, each woman had her own sugar shack. Native Americans had various names for certain maple items. the Cree called the sugar maple Sisibaskwatattik (tree), the Ojubway called maple sugar Ninautik (our own tree), and other tribes called the maple, Michton. Early Native Americans seldom used salt (they preferred sugar) and used maple on meat and fish. Some tribes celebrated the return of spring with a “maple moon” festival which is know today as “sugar bush time”.
Their name also occurs as Ojibway and Chippeway, but they are not to be confused with the Chipewyan. In the mid-17th cent., when visited by Father Claude Jean Allouez, they occupied the shores of Lake Superior . They were constantly at war with the Sioux and the Fox over possession of the rich fields of wild rice in this region. When the Ojibwa received (c.1690) firearms from the French, they drove the Fox from N Wisconsin . They then turned against the Sioux, compelling them to cross the Mississippi River . The Ojibwa continued their expansion W across Minnesota and North Dakota until they reached the Turtle Mts. in N central North Dakota . This group became the Plains Ojibwa.
In 1736 the Ojibwa obtained their first foothold E of Lake Superior, and after a series of engagements with the Iroquois, they obtained the peninsula between Lake Huron and Lake Erie . Thus by the mid-18th cent. they controlled a large area from the eastern shore of Lake Huron in the east to the Turtle Mts. in the west. The Ojibwa, one of the largest tribes N of Mexico, then numbered some 25,000. They were allied with the French in the French and Indian Wars and with the British in the War of 1812. After the War of 1812 they made a treaty with the United States , and since that time they have lived on reservations in Michigan , Wisconsin , Minnesota , North Dakota , and Montana .
Traditionally the Ojibwa, except for the Plains Ojibwa, were a fairly sedentary people who depended for food on fishing, hunting (deer), farming (corn and squash), and the gathering of wild rice. They obtained and used maple sugar and smoked kinnikinnick, a tobacco made from dried leaves and bark. The characteristic dwelling was the wigwam. The Ojibwa had a unique form of picture writing that was intimately connected with the religious and magico-medical rites of the Midewiwin society.
Today the Ojibwa, or Chippewa, constitute the third largest Native American group in the United States , numbering over 100,000 in 1990. Their numerous bands include the Turtle Mountain , Sault Ste. Marie, Red Lake , Minnesota , Lac Courte Oreilles, White Earth, Leech Lake , Bad River , and others. More than 76,000 live in Canada , in 125 bands. While some Ojibwa are engaged in the traditional occupations of hunting, fishing, and harvesting wild rice, others run manufacturing and casino businesses. Some bands are still seeking redress for the loss of hunting and fishing rights stemming back to treaties made in the 1850s..
See F. Densmore, Chippewa Customs (1929, repr. 1970); R. Landes, Ojibwa Sociology (1937, repr. 1969) and Ojibwa Woman (1938, repr. 1971); H. Hickerson, The Chippewa and Their Neighbors (1970).
The Chippewa used dogs for hunting and to pull travois. In most tribes the women cared for, bred and trained the dogs for drags and sled pulling. The toboggan, introduced after the Conquest, soon became the universal form of winter transport form the St. Lawrence to the Mackenzie River.
Zuidelijke Common Type & coyote type
(Song Dog ; Coyote x (foundation lijn) )
Tahl Tan en Pueblo
Common & Plains type;
Onder constructie. Binnenkort meer info